This paper identifies innovations shown to affect the performance of providers in meeting the needs of the poor and likely to have a major impact on health-related markets in the future. The authors faced major challenges in putting this information together. There are no definitive inventories of innovations in health-related markets and there is relatively little scientific literature on the performance of these providers. Much activity takes place outside a formal regulatory structure and is not subject to reporting requirements. Some of the most populous countries are experiencing very rapid increases in the demand for goods and services and in the growth of local companies. It is difficult to obtain information on these companies and the strategies they are formulating to capture market shares. Finally, it is impossible to generalize about a wide spectrum of low- and middle-income countries which differ in almost every way.