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Publications

Filtering by Category: Journal Article

Universal health coverage: an opportunity to address antimicrobial resistance?

Future Health Systems

Tayler E, Gregory R, Bloom G, Salma P, and Balkhy H (2019) Universal health coverage: an opportunity to address antimicrobial resistance?, The Lacent Global Health, Published Online September 20, 2019, DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30362-6

On Sept 23, 2019, global leaders will gather at the UN for a high-level meeting on universal health coverage and discuss commitments and action to extend essential health services to over half of the world's population that have no access to them. 3 years ago, leaders met similarly at the UN General Assembly to consider antimicrobial resistance, perhaps the greatest threat to public health of our time. These two major global health priorities are much more closely linked than they might appear at first. If antimicrobial resistance is not controlled, health care will become more difficult, less effective, and more expensive. Conversely, action towards universal health coverage — and a positive response by countries at the meeting to the key asks proposed by the universal health coverage movement — can help expand coverage of measures to prevent and manage infection, including appropriate use of antibiotics. Countries have a great opportunity to both accelerate universal health coverage progress and tackle antimicrobial resistance, with substantial and sustainable gains.

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Photo voice as a participatory approach to influence climate related health policy in the Sundarbans

Future Health Systems

Ghosh U, Sen B, and Bose S (2019) Photo voice as a participatory approach to influence climate related health policy in the Sundarbans, The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 3, Special Issue, S22, DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30165-2

The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report highlights community-based strategies to drive effective and ecologically sustainable local adaptation strategies. A climate change hot spot, Sundarbans, India, needs collective action between communities and for local level health and non-health decision makers to find sustainable solutions to combat the impacts of climate change on child health.

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Understanding the role of community resilience in addressing the Ebola virus disease epidemic in Liberia: a qualitative study (community resilience in Liberia)

Future Health Systems

Alonge O, Sonkarlay S, Gwaikolo W, Fahim C, Cooper JL and Peters DH (2019) Understanding the role of community resilience in addressing the Ebola virus disease epidemic in Liberia: a qualitative study (community resilience in Liberia), Global Health Action, 12:1, DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2019.1662682

There is an increasing recognition that community resilience plays a significant role in addressing health shocks like the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic. However, the factors that constitute community resilience, and how these operate dynamically with other health system factors are less understood. This paper seeks to understand key factors that constitute community resilience and their role in responding to the EVD outbreak in Liberia.

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Service delivery transformation for UHC in Asia and the Pacific

Future Health Systems

Bloom G (2018) Service Delivery Transformation for UHC in Asia and the Pacific, Health Systems & Reform, Volume 5, Issue 1, DOI: 10.1080/23288604.2018.1541498

This article was drafted as part of a review of strategies for making progress toward universal health coverage in the countries of Asia and the Pacific. It focuses on strengthening the delivery of services, in the context of population aging. It argues that it is important to take into account big differences in development contexts and also the rapid, interconnected changes that many countries are experiencing. The article focuses especially on countries with relatively undeveloped institutions and pluralistic and highly segmented health sectors. It argues that attempts by these countries to import institutional arrangements from outside are likely to be complicated. It argues that government needs to focus on both short-term measures to meet immediate needs and the longer-term aim of establishing effective institutional arrangements. This means that they need to take into account the political factors that influence the direction of health system change. The article emphasizes the need to strengthen the capacity of the health system to address the growing challenge of chronic noncommunicable diseases to avoid heavy political pressure to expand hospital services. It then explores the opportunities and challenges associated with the rapid expansion of digital health services. It concludes with a discussion of government stewardship and management of health system transformation to address the major challenges associated with population aging.

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Scaling up ART adherence clubs in the public sector health system in the Western Cape, South Africa: a study of the institutionalisation of a pilot innovation

Future Health Systems

MacGregor H, McKenzie A, Jacobs T and Ullauri A (2018) Scaling up ART adherence clubs in the public sector health system in the Western Cape, South Africa: a study of the institutionalisation of a pilot innovation, Globalization and Health, 14:40, DOI: 10.1186/s12992-018-0351-z

In 2011, a decision was made to scale up a pilot innovation involving ‘adherence clubs’ as a form of differentiated care for HIV positive people in the public sector antiretroviral therapy programme in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In 2016 we were involved in the qualitative aspect of an evaluation of the adherence club model, the overall objective of which was to assess the health outcomes for patients accessing clubs through epidemiological analysis, and to conduct a health systems analysis to evaluate how the model of care performed at scale. In this paper we adopt a complex adaptive systems lens to analyse planned organisational change through intervention in a state health system. We explore the challenges associated with taking to scale a pilot that began as a relatively simple innovation by a non-governmental organisation.

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Reflecting strategic and conforming gendered experiences of community health workers (CHWs) using photovoice in rural Wakiso district, Uganda

Future Health Systems

Musoke D, Ssemugabo C, Ndejjo R, Ekirapa-Kiracho E and George AS (2018) Reflecting strategic and conforming gendered experiences of community health workers (CHWs) using photovoice in rural Wakiso district, Uganda, Human Resources for Health, 16:41, DOI: 10.1186/s12960-018-0306-8

Community health workers (CHWs) are an important human resource in Uganda as they are the first contact of the population with the health system. Understanding gendered roles of CHWs is important in establishing how they influence their performance and relationships in communities. This paper explores the differential roles of male and female CHWs in rural Wakiso district, Uganda, using photovoice, an innovative community-based participatory research approach.

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Gender dynamics in digital health: Overcoming blind spots and biases to seize opportunities and responsibilities for transformative health systems

Future Health Systems

George, A, Morgan, R, Larson, E and LeFevre, A (2018) Gender dynamics in digital health: Overcoming blind spots and biases to seize opportunities and responsibilities for transformative health systems, Journal of Public Health, fdy180, DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdy180

Much remains to ensure that digital health affirms rather than retrenches inequality, including for gender. Drawing from literature and from the SEARCH projects in this supplement, this commentary highlights key gender dynamics in digital health, including blind spots and biases, as well as transformative opportunities and responsibilities. Women face structural and social barriers that inhibit their participation in digital health, but are also frequently positioned as beneficiaries without opportunities to shape such projects to better fit their needs. Furthermore, overlooking gender relations and focussing on women in isolation can reinforce, rather than address, women’s exclusions in digital health, and worsen negative unanticipated consequences. While digital health provides opportunities to transform gender relations, gender is an intimate and deeply structural form of social inequality that rarely changes due to a single initiative or short-term project. Sustained support over time, across health system stakeholders and levels is required to ensure that transformative change with one set of actors is replicated and reinforced elsewhere in the health system. There is no one size prescriptive formula or checklist. Incremental learning and reflection is required to nurture ownership and respond to unanticipated reactions over time when transforming gender and its multiple intersections with inequality.

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Where girls are less likely to be fully vaccinated than boys: Evidence from a rural area in Bangladesh

Future Health Systems

Hanifi SM, Ravn H, Aaby P and Bhuiya A (2018) Where girls are less likely to be fully vaccinated than boys: Evidence from a rural area in Bangladesh, Vaccine, 36(23):3323-30, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.059

Immunization is one of the most successful and effective health intervention to reduce vaccine preventable diseases for children. Recently, Bangladesh has made huge progress in immunization coverage. In this study, we compared the recent immunization coverage between boys and girls in a rural area of Bangladesh.

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Evaluation and learning in complex, rapidly changing health systems: China’s management of health sector reform

Future Health Systems

Xiao, Y, Husain, L and Bloom, G (2018) Evaluation and learning in complex, rapidly changing health systems, Globalization and Health, 14:112, DOI: 10.1186/s12992-018-0429-7

Healthcare systems are increasingly recognised as complex, in which a range of non-linear and emergent behaviours occur. China’s healthcare system is no exception. The hugeness of China, and the variation in conditions in different jurisdictions present very substantial challenges to reformers, and militate against adopting one-size-fits-all policy solutions. As a consequence, approaches to change management in China have frequently emphasised the importance of sub-national experimentation, innovation, and learning. Multiple mechanisms exist within the government structure to allow and encourage flexible implementation of policies, and tailoring of reforms to context. These limit the risk of large-scale policy failures and play a role in exploring new reform directions and potentially systemically-useful practices. They have helped in managing the huge transition that China has undergone from the 1970s onwards. China has historically made use of a number of mechanisms to encourage learning from innovative and emergent policy practices. Policy evaluation is increasingly becoming a tool used to probe emergent practices and inform iterative policy making/refining. This paper examines the case of a central policy research institute whose mandate includes evaluating reforms and providing feedback to the health ministry. Evaluation approaches being used are evolving as Chinese research agencies become increasingly professionalised, and in response to the increasing complexity of reforms. The paper argues that learning from widespread innovation and experimentation is challenging, but necessary for stewardship of large, and rapidly-changing systems.

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A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial in rural Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of the use of iron-folic acid supplements early in pregnancy on the risk of neonatal mortality

Future Health Systems

Huda TM, Rahman MM, Raihana S, Islam S, Tahsina T, Alam A, Agho K, Rasheed S, Hayes A, Karim MA and Rahman QS (2018) A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial in rural Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of the use of iron-folic acid supplements early in pregnancy on the risk of neonatal mortality: the Shonjibon trial, BMC Public Health, 18(1):816, DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5713-1

Iron-deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency globally. Due to the high iron requirements for pregnancy, it is highly prevalent and severe in pregnant women. There is strong evidence that maternal iron deficiency anaemia increases the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. However, most of the evidence is from observational epidemiological studies except for a very few randomised controlled trials. IFA supplements have also been found to reduce the preterm delivery rate and neonatal mortality attributable to prematurity and birth asphyxia. These results combined indicate that IFA supplements in populations of iron-deficient pregnant women could lead to a decrease in the number of neonatal deaths mediated by reduced rates of preterm delivery. In this paper, we describe the protocol of a community-based cluster randomised controlled trial that aims to evaluate the impact of maternal antenatal IFA supplements on perinatal outcomes.

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How can mobile phones be used to improve nutrition service delivery in rural Bangladesh?

Future Health Systems

Khan NU, Rasheed S, Sharmin T, Siddique AK, Dibley M and Alam A (2018) How can mobile phones be used to improve nutrition service delivery in rural Bangladesh?, BMC Health Services Research, 18(1):530, DOI: 10.1186/s12913-018-3351-z

Nutrition has been integrated within the health services in Bangladesh as it is an important issue for health and development. High penetration of mobile phones in the community and favourable policy and political commitment of the Government of Bangladesh has created possibilities of using Information Communication Technology such as mobile phones for nutrition programs. In this paper the implementation of nutrition services with a specific focus on infant and young child feeding was explored and the potential for using mobile phones to improve the quality and coverage of nutrition services was assessed.

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Health policy and systems research: the future of the field

Future Health Systems

Peters D (2018) Health policy and systems research: the future of the field, Health Research Policy and Systems, 16:84, DOI: 10.1186/s12961-018-0359-0

Health policy and systems research (HPSR) has changed considerably over the last 20 years, but its main purpose remains to inform and influence health policies and systems. Whereas goals that underpin health systems have endured – such as a focus on health equity – contexts and priorities change, research methods progress, and health organisations continue to learn and adapt, in part by using HPSR. For HPSR to remain relevant, its practitioners need to re-think how health systems are conceptualised, to keep up with rapid changes in how we diagnose and manage disease and use information, and consider factors affecting people’s health that go well beyond healthcare systems. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent a shifting paradigm in human development by seeking convergence across sectors. They also offer an opportunity for HPSR to play a larger role, given its pioneering work on applying systems thinking to health, its focus on health equity, and the strength of its multi-disciplinary approaches that make it a good fit for the SDG era.

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Gendered health systems: evidence from low- and middle-income countries

Future Health Systems

Morgan R, Ayiasi RM, Barman D, Buzuzi S, Ssemugabo C, Ezumah N, George AS, Hawkins K, Hao X, King R, Liu T, Molyneux S, Muraya KW, Musoke D, Nyamhanga T, Ros B, Tani K, Theobald S, Vong S and Waldman L (2018) Gendered health systems: evidence from low- and middle-income countries, Health Research Policy and Systems, 16:58, DOI: 10.1186/s12961-018-0338-5

Gender is often neglected in health systems, yet health systems are not gender neutral. Within health systems research, gender analysis seeks to understand how gender power relations create inequities in access to resources, the distribution of labour and roles, social norms and values, and decision-making. This paper synthesises findings from nine studies focusing on four health systems domains, namely human resources, service delivery, governance and financing. It provides examples of how a gendered and/or intersectional gender approach can be applied by researchers in a range of low- and middle-income settings (Cambodia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, India, China, Nigeria and Tanzania) to issues across the health system and demonstrates that these types of analysis can uncover new and novel ways of viewing seemingly intractable problems.

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Key Considerations for Accountability and Gender in Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Future Health Systems

Waldman L, Theobald S and Morgan R (2018) Key Considerations for Accountability and Gender in Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, IDS Bulletin, 49(2), DOI: 10.19088/1968-2018.137

This article poses questions, challenges, and dilemmas for health system researchers striving to better understand how gender shapes accountability mechanisms, by critically examining the relationship between accountability and gender in health systems. It raises three key considerations, namely that: (1) power and inequities are centre stage: power relations are critical to both gender and accountability, and accountability mechanisms can transform health systems to be more gender-equitable; (2) intersectionality analyses are necessary: gender is only one dimension of marginalisation and intersects with other social stratifiers to create different experiences of vulnerability; we need to take account of how these stratifiers collectively shape accountability; and (3) empowerment processes that address gender inequities are a prerequisite for bringing about accountability. We suggest that holistic approaches to understanding health systems inequities and accountability mechanisms are needed to transform gendered power inequities, impact on the gendered dimensions of ill health, and enhance health system functioning.

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Introduction: Accountability for Health Equity: Galvanising a Movement for Universal Health Coverage

Future Health Systems

Nelson E, Bloom G and Shankland A. (2018) Introduction: Accountability for Health Equity: Galvanising a Movement for Universal Health Coverage, IDS Bulletin, 49(2), DOI: 10.19088/1968-2018.131

In July 2017, IDS hosted a workshop on ‘Unpicking Power and Politics for Transformative Change: Towards Accountability for Health Equity’, with the aim of generating dialogue and mutual learning among activists, researchers, policymakers, and funders working towards more equitable health systems and a commitment to Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This issue of the IDS Bulletin is based around three principal themes that emerged from the workshop as needing particular attention. First, the nature of accountability politics ‘in time’ and the cyclical aspects of efforts towards accountability for health equity. Second, the contested politics of ‘naming’ and measuring accountability, and the intersecting dimensions of marginalisation and exclusion that are missing from current debates. Third, the shifting nature of power in global health and new configurations of health actors, social contracts, and the role of technology.For the first time in IDS Bulletin history, themes are explored not only in text but also through a selection of online multimedia content, including a workshop video, a photo story and a documentary. This expansion into other forms of communication is explicitly aimed at galvanising larger numbers of people in a movement towards UHC and the linked agenda of accountability for health equity.The articles and multimedia in this IDS Bulletin reflect the fact that while the desired outcome might be the same – better health for all – accountability strategies are as diverse as the contexts in which they have developed.

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‘We have the internet in our hands’: Bangladeshi college students’ use of ICTs for health information

Future Health Systems

Waldman L, Ahmed T, Scott N, Akter S, Standing H and Rasheed S (2018) ‘We have the internet in our hands’: Bangladeshi college students’ use of ICTs for health information, Globalization and Health, 14:31, DOI: 10.1186/s12992-018-0349-6

Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) which enable people to access, use and promote health information through digital technology, promise important health systems innovations which can challenge gatekeepers’ control of information, through processes of disintermediation. College students, in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information, are particularly affected by gatekeeping as strong social and cultural norms restrict their access to information and services. This paper examines mobile phone usage for obtaining health information in Mirzapur, Bangladesh. It contrasts college students’ usage with that of the general population, asks whether students are using digital technologies for health information in innovative ways, and examines how gender affects this.

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Health system innovations: adapting to rapid change

Future Health Systems

Bloom G, Wilkinson A and Bhuiya A  (2018) Health system innovations: adapting to rapid change, Globalization and Health, 14:29, DOI: 10.1186/s12992-018-0347-8

A fundamental challenge for health systems is the need to adapt to changes in the patterns of health service need, scientific and technological developments, and the economic and institutional contexts within which providers of health services are embedded. This is especially true of many low and middle-income countries, where the pace of multiple and interconnected changes is breath-taking. This paper introduces the Thematic Issue on Innovation in Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 

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The slowing pace of life expectancy gains since 1950

Future Health Systems

Cardona C and Bishai D (2018) The slowing pace of life expectancy gains since 1950, BMC Public Health, 18(1), 151, DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5058-9

New technological breakthroughs in biomedicine should have made it easier for countries to improve life expectancy at birth (LEB). This paper measures the pace of improvement in the decadal gains of LEB, for the last 60-years adjusting for each country’s starting point of LEB.

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Doctoral level research and training capacity in the social determinants of health at universities and higher education institutions in India, China, Oman and Vietnam: a survey of needs

Future Health Systems

Ali F, Shet A, Yan W, Al-Maniri A, Atkins and Lucas H (2017) Doctoral level research and training capacity in the social determinants of health at universities and higher education institutions in India, China, Oman and Vietnam: a survey of needs, Health Research Policy and Systems, 15:76, DOI: 10.1186/s12961-017-0225-5

Research capacity is scarce in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Social determinants of health research (SDH) is an area in which research capacity is lacking, particularly in Asian countries. SDH research can support health decision-makers, inform policy and thereby improve the overall health and wellbeing of the population. In order to continue building this capacity, we need to know to what extent training exists and how challenges could be addressed from the perspective of students and staff. This paper aims to describe the challenges involved in training scholars to undertake research on the SDH in four Asian countries – China, India, Oman and Vietnam.

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Universal health coverage, economic slowdown and system resilience: Africa’s policy dilemma

Future Health Systems

Russo G, Bloom G and McCoy D (2017) Universal health coverage, economic slowdown and system resilience: Africa’s policy dilemma, BMJ Global Health, 2 (3), DOI: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-00040

Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) has become a dominant policy preoccupation within the global health community. For Africa, progress towards UHC involves ambitious goals for expanding access to a range of effective health services, a substantial increase in health expenditure, and establishing a greater reliance on prepayment and pooling mechanisms to finance healthcare. According to one set of calculations, achieving UHC requires countries to spend at least $86 per capita in 2012 dollars on healthcare, and a minimum of 5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Clearly, expanding the ‘fiscal space for health’ will be key to the success of UHC.

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