Extreme weather events such as cyclones, flooding, and heat spells in South Asia have drawn attention to the effect of climate change on human life and our lack of preparedness. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation coupled with high population density contribute to emission of greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), which lead to a rise in temperature. This has altered precipitation patterns and led to a rise in sea levels. The fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes that key risks for the region are widespread damage to human life, infrastructure, and livelihoods from riverine, coastal, and urban flooding; heat related mortality; and drought related water and food shortage causing malnutrition.
The 2015 Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change concluded that although climate change was the biggest public health threat of the 21st century, tackling it could be the greatest global health opportunity. All South Asian countries have ratified the Paris agreement, committing to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and develop systems to respond to the effects of climate change. However, climate change is not yet given priority in countries’ health agendas. The effect on the poorest and most vulnerable in society is also often neglected in the climate change discourse.
The authors examine the health effects of climate change in South Asian countries and current strategies to address these, and recommend an inclusive approach to climate change adaptation planning in the region.